DEC2H 2021

9th International Workshop on DEClarative, DECision and Hybrid approaches to processes (DEC2H 2021) In conjunction with BPM 2021

Workshop: , Rome, Italy

About DEC2H

Workshop Theme

Business processes involve rule-based decisions describing the premises and possible outcomes of specific situations. For knowledge-intensive processes, it is common that rules and decisions, as opposed to the process-flow, define the underlying structure and behaviour of a process. For example, the major purpose of an insurance claim process is to ensure that the rules governing the claim are being followed and to arrive at a final decision. These are highly variable situations, and the processes supporting them are very flexible by nature. This variability and flexibility calls for explicit statement of the underlying rules and decisions when describing such processes.
While traditional notations such as BPMN excel at describing “happy paths”, they fall short when modelling flexible and varying rules and decisions, where such models tend to clutter and become imprecise or impractical. To overcome this issue, declarative modelling formalisms (such as DCR Graphs, DMN, CMMN, GSM, and DPIL) aim to directly capture the business rules or constraints underlying the process.

In this workshop, we are interested in the application and challenges of decision- and rule-based modelling in all phases of the BPM lifecycle: identification, discovery, analysis, redesign, implementation and monitoring. Contributions may include completed work (research, case studies and tools), but also work-in-progress and position papers.

Download the Call for Papers

Purpose of the workshop

The purpose of the workshop is:

  • To examine the relationship between rules, decisions and processes, including models; not only to model the process, but also to model the rules and decisions.
  • To enhance rule and decision mining based on process data (e.g., event logs).
  • To examine decision goals, structures, and their connection with business processes, in order to find a good integration between rule- and decision-based modelling and flow-based modelling.
  • To examine standards (DMN, CMMN, BPMN) and their integration.
  • To study how different process models can be designed to fit a decision process, according to various optimization criteria, such as throughput time, use of resources, etc.
  • To study the integration between declarative models with traditional imperative models.
  • To show best practices in separating process, rule and decision concerns.


Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

Declarative and hybrid (process modelling) approaches

  • Declarative notations (Declare, DCR Graphs, CMMN, GSM, eCRG, DPIL, …)
  • Decision & goal notations (DMN, PDM, …)
  • Declarative and hybrid modelling methodologies
  • Process metrics
  • Process maintenance and flexibility
  • Human-centered and flexible processes
  • Decision rules and processes
  • Decision models and structures
  • Formal analysis (e.g., expressiveness proofs) of declarative and hybrid notations
  • Formal verification (e.g. model-checking and static analysis) of declarative and hybrid models
  • Run-time adaptation of declarative and hybrid process models

Decision mining and declarative/hybrid process mining

  • Decision mining
  • Declarative process mining
  • Hybrid process mining
  • Data mining for decision and declarative/hybrid process analysis
  • Rule mining for decision and declarative/hybrid process analysis
  • Modeling challenges to combine static information of business

Applications of decision- and rule-modelling in BPM

  • Goal-driven processes
  • Knowledge-intensive processes
  • Business process compliance
  • Knowledge workflow management
  • Usability and understandability studies
  • Case studies
  • Tools

Paper submission

Submission guidelines

Prospective authors are invited to submit papers on any of the topics of the workshop. We are interested in research, work-in-progress, position, case-study and tool papers, either in long (not exceeding 12 pages) or short (not exceeding 6 pages) format. Only papers in English will be considered. Submitted papers must present original research contributions not concurrently submitted elsewhere. Authors are requested to prepare submissions according to the Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing (LNBIP) format specified by Springer (see the instructions). The title page must contain a short abstract and a list of keywords, preferably using the list of topics given above.

Papers must be submitted electronically via EasyChair: enter the main conference installation (BPM 2021) at and select 9th International Workshop on DEClarative, DECision and Hybrid approaches to processes as the submission track.

Download the Call for Papers

Special Issue

Depending on their quality, the authors of selected papers in DEC2H will be invited to submit revised and extended versions of their work for a special issue in the Journal of Intelligent Information Systems (JIIS), edited by Springer.

Important dates

Abstract submission (optional)


Manuscript submission

AoE Deadline extended!


Camera-ready version


Read the programme of the workshop




The workshop will begin with a keynote, followed by presentations of accepted papers. Full papers have 20 minutes for their presentations plus 10 minutes for discussion and Q&A. Short papers have 15 plus 5 minutes at their disposal.

Each manuscript will be reviewed by at least three program committee members guaranteeing that only papers presenting high quality work and innovative research in areas relevant to the workshop theme are accepted. Papers that are not accepted, yet reviewed positively, may still be invited for presentation at the workshop.

Accepted papers will appear in the workshop proceedings. The pre-prints will be made available before the workshop starts. The post-proceedings will be published by Springer in the Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing (LNBIP) series, in a single volume dedicated to the proceedings of all BPM 2021 workshops. During a time window after the conference, the workshop participants will be granted the free download of the papers.

At least one author of each accepted manuscript is required to register for the workshop and present the paper. Registration is subject to the terms, conditions and procedure of the main BPM 2021 conference to be found on its website.

COVID-19 Read the BPM 2021 conference statement on the plans to tackle the COVID-19 difficulties.


Thomas T. Hildebrandt: Transparent, Explainable and Maintainable Digital Models of Decisions and Processes Regulated by Law


Trustworthy digitalisation of decisions and processes regulated by law takes much more than coding rules and processes in software. The talk will give an overview of the results of the recently completed, four year inter-disciplinary research and innovation project EcoKnow and discuss the road ahead. The EcoKnow project aimed to provide technologies and methods for effective, co-created and compliant adaptive case management for knowledge workers. Taking outset in the formal Dynamic Condition Response (DCR) graph notation for declarative, timed processes, the project at the one hand extended the notation, formalization to handle data, decisions and sub processes supported by a solid process engine-as-a-service and tools to assist map between textual procedures and laws to models developed by the company DCR Solutions, which was founded during the project. At the other hand, the researchers carried out empirical understandability studies of the notation and ethnographic studies of case management practice in municipalities and in particular the challenges and opportunities in using artificial intelligence for decision support. The technology is now embedded in case management system offered by KMD and widely used in central government in Denmark and starting to be spread internationally via the owner NEC. The technology is also used in other tools such as compliance verification developed by Italian MAPS, dynamic guidelines developed by Danish Infoventure and an open source case management client spreading to several municipalities.

The keynote speaker

Thomas T. Hildebrandt is professor in computer science and head the Software, Data, People & Society research section at Department of Computer Science, Copenhagen University. He has a PhD in formal methods and semantics of concurrent processes from University of Aarhus and his research focus on the trustworthy application of formal methods to digitalization of processes leading to the seminal work on DCR graphs 10 years ago, developed jointly with his research group and the CEO of DCR Solutions. Thomas has been PI or co-PI in several interdisciplinary research projects, most recently the Grand Solutions project funded by Innovation Fund Denmark. The research is continued in several ongoing projects in collaboration with the faculty of Law, Copenhagen University. The projects focuses on transparency and legality of processes and decisions in public administration and the use of data science in understanding legal case management processes in areas such as migration law.


Time Event
Welcome and opening
Stephan Haarmann, Anjo Seidel and Mathias Weske,
Modeling Objectives of Knowledge Workers
Alexandre Goossens, Michelle Claessens, Charlotte Parthoens and Jan Vanthienen,
Extracting Decision Dependencies and Decision Logic Using Deep Learning Techniques
Thomas Hildebrandt, Søren Debois, Morten Marquard, Håkon Normann and Tijs Slaats,
Decision Modelling in Timed Dynamic Condition Response Graphs with Data
Coffee break
Keynote: Thomas Hildebrandt,
Transparent, Explainable and Maintainable Digital Models of Decisions and Processes Regulated by Law


Department of Computer, Control and Management Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome,
Via Ariosto, 25
00185 Rome
Open the map

More information on the location can be found in BPM 2021 dedicated page.


Program Committee

  • Rafael Accorsi, PwC, Switzerland
  • Andrea Burattin, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark
  • Alessio Cecconi, Vienna University of Economics and Business, Austria
  • Carl Corea, University of Koblenz-Landau, Germany
  • João Costa Seco, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal
  • Massimiliano de Leoni, University of Padua, Italy
  • Riccardo De Masellis, Uppsala University, Sweden
  • Chiara Di Francescomarino, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Italy
  • Rik Eshuis, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands
  • Robert Golan, DBmind Technologies Inc., United States
  • María Teresa Gómez-López, Universidad de Sevilla, Spain
  • Xunhua Guo, Tsinghua University, China
  • Amin Jalali, Stockholm University, Sweden
  • Dimitris Karagiannis, University of Vienna, Austria
  • Krzysztof Kluza, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland
  • Fabrizio M. Maggi, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Italy
  • Artem Polyvyanyy, University of Melbourne, Australia
  • Flavia M. Santoro, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • Stefan Schönig, Universität Regensburg, Germany
  • Lucinéia H. Thom, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • Han van der Aa, Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany
  • Wil M.P. van der Aalst, RWTH Aachen University, Germany
  • Mathias Weske, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam, Germany


Contact the chairs at the following email address: DEC2H [at] di [dot] uniroma1 [dot] it